^^Cool, I'll try to give some info before heading to bed and maybe I could provide more info tomorrow while at work. Also note that depending on the tribe/island/culture some patterns were interpreted differently; so know that what I say is not 100% A pattern from the northern island of the Philippines may mean something different than the southern islands or the Polynesian triangle.
South-East Asian and Polynesian tattoos share a very similar/common origin, as does some of their language. Examples of this is the Maori facial tattoo called "ta moko." In Tagalog the word for face is "muhka." Phonetically they are similar. The word tattoo in various Polynesian languages as well as Tagalog and other South-East Asian languages is phonetically similar as well. Tatua, tatak, tak tak, etc.
Polynesian and Filipino tribal tattoos also share similar symbols and patterns. Let's use the triangle pattern for an example. For Polynesians, this pattern is the teeth of a shark, for Filipinos it's the teeth of a crocodile. Hawaiians, as well as some other Polynesians, viewed sharks as their ancestral spirits. The story goes that a young women was swimming in the ocean when a shark bit her ankle. The shark was actually an ancestral spirit of hers, but he did not recognize her until she yelled out his name. He apologized and said that in return, he will protect her. The bite mark on her ankle is how he would recognize her and that's why the shark teeth means protection. For Filipinos, before the Spanish came, crocodiles were seen as a powerful spirit. They worshipped much like many other native people of the world, nature and animals. The crocodile was seen as one of the most powerful and most important animals/gods out there. Besides the teeth of a crocodile, the Filipinos would also get patterns of the crocodiles back.
In general, a leaf pattern was something for strength and good health. You eat the leaf, this is to make you strong and keep you healthy.
Spearheads are a symbol for warriors.
Centipede patterns have a few meanings in both Polynesia and the Philippines In the Philippines they are seen as another warrior pattern. The head of the centipede bites/strikes. Also the Filipino war parties would travel in single file in order to conceal the number of soldiers they had, much like the narrow/streamlined pattern of a centipede. The bearer of the centipede pattern is also supposed to be protected from poisons.